The primary sources for Catacomb Church life fall into three main categories:
Almost all of these sources are in the Russian language. The chief collection of them up to now has been the book of Protopresbyter Michael Polsky, Russia New Martyrs (two volumes, Jordanville, 1948 and 1957), and now also Lev Regelson’s Tragedy of the Russian Church (Paris, 1977), which concentrates mainly on official documents. But there are many other sources, both in manuscript and little accessible printed accounts.
was a former inmate of Solovki concentration camp and other atrocious Gulag institutions which he describes in his book Difficult Roads (Munich, 1959).
ANDRE YEV, * Ivan M. (see pp. 15-103).
ANFISA, Nun * (t1974) Cell-attendant of Abbess Juliana of Calistoga, California. She witnessed the martyrdom of Bishop Theophan of Solikam (t1919) and many others, primarily in the Novgorod region. Bishop Theophan was dragged by an enraged revolutionary mob which, giggling and laughing satanically, tied him to a pole next to the frozen Kama River. A hole was chiseled out through the ice and Bishop Theophaneg was slowly immersed into the icy water and held underwater for several minutes. He was then removed and a thin layer of ice formed around him. This was repeated several times and in this way he met his martyr’s death. The horrified Orthodox Christians stood helpless before the frenzied mob which had been instigated by Lenin’s ideas. (This account also appears in a short version
the life of Abbesa Rufina of Harbin.)
ERASTOVA, Novice Maria. A recent convert to Orthodoxy in the Soviet Union. Her life was changed through contact with contemporary confessors such as Matushka Eugenia Chetverukhin (pp. 404-16) and Elder Tavrion (pp. 512-4; see also his life in Orthodox Word, No. 96, Jan.-Feb. 1981).
Soviet church conditions criticized his hastiness to categorize all clergy into only two groups, when actually the majority of bishops hoped that Sergianism would not survive, and thus they never officially separated from Metropolitan Sergj Several people who also suffered for Christ under the communist yoke in Russia thought that Father Michael was too quick to put into the Sergianist category those who hesitated to voice their protest against the Declaration. In addition, many out standing hierarchs who were definitely against Sergianism Father Michael either dismisses, mentions briefly, or tends to cast a shadow of doubt upon them. Some such as Bishop Peter of Voronezh, whose letters were preserved and published is categorized as a Josephite bishop by Father Michael, but there is no evidence of this. We can safely say, as these witnesses assert (Archbishop Andrew, Nun Xenia Natalia Kieter, Abbess Juliana, Nun Veronica, and Archbishop Leonty), that the Russian clergy as a whole definitely rejected the spirit of Sergianism. It was a small group of Metropolitan Sergius’ personal admirers (most notably Alexis and Nikolai) who signed the Declaration and thus formed the nucleus of the present-day Moscow Patriarchate. For this reason the free Russian Church, the Synod of Bishops Outside of Russia, does not have communion with the Moscow Patriarchate, yet remains united in spirit to the believers in the Soviet Union.